The unity in diversification is what is replicated in Indian cinema which is celebrating its 100 years of glory. The glory which it has earned over the years, the glory which makes an Indian proud to be a part of, the glory which altogether has become a culture in itself, the glory which reinstates the variegated Indian culture under one roof garnering the cinematic cultures which are produced nationwide. There is no doubt that Indian cinema has become a brand ambassador of Indian culture in the world.
Indian cinema has gone through lots of upheavals and changes and is not reluctant to adopt technological advancements.
The advancement in technology has improvised the established cinematic norms of delivering product which doctored the manner in which content used to reach the target audience earlier. Super hero and science fiction films like Krish , Enthiran, Eega and Ra.One are all visual effects based and emerged as the examples of technological advancements.
Be it Satyajit Ray, Mrinal Sen , Ritwik Ghatak, Shyam Benegal, Mani Ratnam etc whose contributions have been enormous in making Indian cinema realise it’s true potential .
The flower of Persia directed by Hiralal Sen became the first Indian short film produced in 1898. The first Indian film released in India was Shree Pundalik a silent film in Marathi by Dadasaheb Torne on 18 May 1912 at ‘Coronation Cinematograph’, Mumbai. However there were several controversies associated with it.Some have argued that Pundalik does not deserve the honour of being called the first Indian film because it was a photographic recording of a popular Marathi play, and because the cameraman—a man named Johnson—was a British national and the film was processed in London.
The first full length motion picture in India was produced Dadasaheb Phalke who brought together elements of Sanskrit epics to produce his Raja Harishchandra (1913) a silent film in Marathi. Dadasaheb Phalke is being considered to be the father of Indian Cinema and The Dadasaheb Phalke award has been instituted in his honour by government in 1969 for the people for their lifetime contribution to Indian cinema.
The early twentieth century gathered popularity across Indian population. Tickets were made affordable to the common man at a low price and for the financially capable additional comforts were ensured by aggrandising the ticket price. The content of Indian commercial cinema was increasingly embellished to appeal to these masses. Young Indian producers began to stitch the red carpet with the elements of India’s social life and culture. Others brought with them ideas from across the world. This was also the time when global audiences and markets became aware of India’s film industry.
The golden age of Indian cinema followed after Indian independence. Most of the critically acclaimed films are produced during this time period.The period also marked the genesis of parallel cinema movement led by Bengali cinema. tO quote a few examples which belong to this movement were Chetan Anand’s Neecha Nagar (196), Ritwik Ghatak’s Nagrik(1952), Bimal Roy’s Do Bigha Zameen (1953) laying the foundations for Indian Neorealism , The Apu Trilogy won major prizes at all the major international film festivals and led to the ‘Parallel Cinema’ movement being firmly established in Indian cinema.
Some filmmakers like Shyam Benegal continued to produce realistic Parallel cinema throughout 1970s alongside Styajit Ray, Buddhadeb Dasgupta, Gautam Ghose in Bengali cinema,Adoor Gopalakrishnan , Shaji N karun, G. Aravindan in Malayalam cinema, Nirad Mohapatra in Oriya cinema, and Mani kaul , Kumar Shahani, Ketan Mehta,Vijay Mehta in Hindi cinema.
The rise of commercial cinema began since 1970’s with enduring films like Sholay, Deewar directed by Yash Chopra and it consistently grew throughout the period of 1980’s and 1990’s with the release of the films like quayamat se quayamat tak, Tezaab, chandni,Maine pyar kiya, Baazigar, Darr, Dilwale Dulhaniya le jayege and Kuch Kuch hota hai